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Washington, DC: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1965. Revised Edition. Wraps. 4.5 inches by 6.75 inches. , 227,  pages. Wraps. Figures. References. Glossary. Index. Covers has some wear and soiling, crease at back corner. This manual supersedes FM 31-21, 29 September 1961, including C 1, 4 September 1963. NATO has defined special operations as "military activities conducted by specially designated, organized, trained, and equipped forces, manned with selected personnel, using unconventional tactics, techniques, and modes of employment". Special forces emerged in the early 20th century, with a significant growth in the field during the Second World War, when every major army created formations devoted to special operations behind enemy lines. Special forces may perform functions including airborne operations, counterinsurgency, counterterrorism, foreign internal defense, covert operations, direct action, hostage rescue, high-value targets/manhunting, intelligence operations, mobility operations, and unconventional warfare.
Washington, DC: Department of the Army, Headquarters, 1961. Presumed First printing thus. Wraps. 48 pages. Wraps. Figures. Some discoloration to edges of covers. Some writing on front cover. This manual supersedes FM 31-15, 7 January 1953, including C 1, 5 November 1954. This manual provides guidance to the commanders and staffs of combined arms forces which have a primary mission of eliminating irregular forces. The text discusses the nature of irregular forces comprised of organized guerrilla units and underground elements, and their supports; and the organization, training, tactics, techniques, and procedures to be employed by a combined arms force, normally in conjunction with civil agencies, do destroy large, well-organized irregular forces in active or cold war situations. These operations may be required in situations wherein an irregular force either constitutes the only enemy, or threatens rear areas of regular military forces which are conducting conventional operations. The material contained herein is applicable to both nuclear and nonnuclear warfare.