London: Henry Colburn, 1815. Second Edition [stated]. Presumed first printing thus. Wraps, string-tied. RARE. Format is approximately 5.75 inches by 8.75 inches (some pages slightly smaller). , 52, [4 of advertisements] pages. Item has some wear and soiling, with some edge wear and some discoloration. Alphonse de Beauchamp entered the Sardinian military service in 1784. Beauchamp commenced his Histoire de la Vendée et des Chouans (three volumes, Paris, 1806), which depicted the cruelties of the Fouché regime. Under the Restoration, he received a pension and wrote for the Moniteur and the Gazette de France. The Waterloo campaign (15 June – 8 July 1815) was fought between the French Army of the North and two Seventh Coalition armies, an Anglo-allied army and a Prussian army. Initially the French army was commanded by Napoleon Bonaparte. The Anglo-allied army was commanded by the Duke of Wellington and the Prussian army by Prince Blücher. The war between France and the Seventh Coalition came when other European Great Powers refused to recognize Napoleon as Emperor of the French upon his return from exile on Elba, and declared war on him, rather than France, as they still recognized Louis XVIII as the king of France and considered Napoleon a usurper. Rather than wait for the Coalition to invade France, Napoleon decided to attack his enemies and hope to defeat them in detail before they could launch their combined and coordinated invasion. He chose to launch his first attack against the two Coalition armies cantoned in modern-day Belgium, then part of the newly formed United Kingdom of the Netherlands, but until the year before part of the First French Empire.
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London: J. Almon, 1785. Presumed First Edition, First printing thus. disbound from volume. Format is approximately 5 inches by 8 inches. This has been removed from a bound volume, presumably a compendium of pamphlets. Pagination , 5-68 pages. Footnotes. Tabular data. The author of "A Short Essay" is reported to have been James Glenie. Field Marshal Charles Lennox, 3rd Duke of Richmond, 3rd Duke of Lennox, 3rd Duke of Aubigny, KG, PC, FRS (22 February 1735 – 29 December 1806), styled Earl of March until 1750, of Goodwood House in Sussex and of Richmond House in London, was a British Army officer and politician. He associated with the Rockingham Whigs and rose to hold the post of Southern Secretary. He was noteworthy for his support for the colonists during the American Revolutionary War, his support for a policy of concession in Ireland and his advanced views on the issue of parliamentary reform. He went on to be a reforming Master-General of the Ordnance first in the Rockingham ministry and then in the ministry of William Pitt. In January 1784 he joined the First Pitt the Younger Ministry as Master-General of the Ordnance; in this role he reformed the Department, introducing salaries for office holders, starting a survey of the South Coast (which led to the formation of the Ordnance Survey) and introducing new artillery (leading to the formation of the Royal Horse Artillery).