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Washington, DC: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1965. Revised Edition. Wraps. 4.5 inches by 6.75 inches. , 227,  pages. Wraps. Figures. References. Glossary. Index. Covers has some wear and soiling, crease at back corner. This manual supersedes FM 31-21, 29 September 1961, including C 1, 4 September 1963. NATO has defined special operations as "military activities conducted by specially designated, organized, trained, and equipped forces, manned with selected personnel, using unconventional tactics, techniques, and modes of employment". Special forces emerged in the early 20th century, with a significant growth in the field during the Second World War, when every major army created formations devoted to special operations behind enemy lines. Special forces may perform functions including airborne operations, counterinsurgency, counterterrorism, foreign internal defense, covert operations, direct action, hostage rescue, high-value targets/manhunting, intelligence operations, mobility operations, and unconventional warfare.